Insertion Tube Endoscope

insertion tube endoscope

Insertion Tube Endoscope

A insertion tube endoscope is an endoscopic device used to examine the internal structures of a body cavity. It includes an objective lens, an air/water valve, and a light source.

The distal end of the insertion tube has an irrigation nozzle that directs a jet of water over the tip to clean it of mucus. This helps to prevent moisture from fogging the objective lens and causing damage to the imaging system.

1. Light Source

The light source is one of the most important elements in an insertion tube endoscope. It determines the quality of the images that it displays. Several factors must be taken into consideration when selecting an illumination source, including color temperature and brightness.

Various types of light sources are available for insertion tube endoscopes. These include xenon light sources and LED light sources. The latter have several advantages over xenon, such as higher intensity and lower energy consumption.

Most xenon light sources have a tethered light guide that is cumbersome and intrusive. The Acera Light Source, on the other hand, is free from this tether and delivers bright light without the heat output of xenon.

Another advantage of the Acera light source is that it provides true color temperature (5000 K) and CRI similar to a xenon lamp. This allows for a more consistent light intensity throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

A specialized fiber optic light guide is used to direct the light from the light source to the distal end of the insertion tube. This light guide is comprised of a series of glass fibers that are connected to the light source unit in the endoscope. The proximal end of the insertion tube rotates to align the two fiber optic bundles with the light source.

Besides a specialized light guide, an insertion tube also has an air/water valve and an antireflux valve. The air/water valve can be operated by the physician to provide the insertion tube with air and water. The air/water valve is also equipped with a vent hole to allow air to escape from the endoscope and to prevent excessive air pressure within the endoscope. The antireflux valve prevents the insertion tube from expanding during use and restricts the airflow in the pharynx to avoid perforation or submucosal hemorrhage.

2. Air/Water Valve

The air/water valve of an insertion tube endoscope is located at the manual operation part and enables the operator to alternatively supply air or water into a body cavity or the like. The valve is a simple structure that allows the air and water to be supplied in an effective and efficient manner.

According to a first aspect of the invention, the air and water valve comprises a valve module that is inserted into an insertion tube and connects a supply tube carrying positive and negative air pressure and water (under pressure) to channel inlets in a housing. The valve module has a front surface that is in contact with the housing when the module is inserted and three front sealing points 17 that are connected in recesses 25 in the proximal end of the valve module to the channel inlets 19 that lead to shaft 3.

Further, the valve module comprises a spool that is over-molded onto the valve module. The spool can be made of a flexible plastic material that imparts flexibility to the valve module. The valve module may also include a separating element that is arranged in the spool and divides the spool into pull rope ducts.

In some embodiments, the separating element is anchored to the sleeve at its proximal side. In other embodiments, the separating element is movable so that it abuts at the sleeve’s distal end.

The separating element can be manufactured from spring steel, stainless steel or a flexible plastic material. In some embodiments, the separating element may be delimited to the sleeve by means of an elastic sleeve that dimmable motion sensor manufacturers extends from the distal end of the insertion tube to the sleeve’s distal side.

3. Suction Valve

An insertion tube endoscope is an endoscopic instrument used to view internal structures. It consists of an insertion tube that contains a suction port and a biopsy port and is deflected during use. It also includes a bending portion that allows the distal tip to be manipulated.

The insertion tube is made of hard resin and is typically 50 to 160 cm long. It has a coil around it that prevents it from buckling and breaking when inserted into a straight colon.

In some cases, the insertion tube is made of a polymer, which can withstand heat, pressure, and other conditions. The polymer also has a good water-tight seal.

Another design of the insertion tube is to have an exterior that is braided or otherwise woven with a layer of metal. This is a common practice because it offers flexibility, strength, and lubricity.

This technique is important because it helps to keep the dimmable motion sensor manufacturers insertion tube from flexing or stretching, which can make it difficult to maneuver through the body. It also makes the insertion tube less likely to tear or break.

Therefore, a separating element 30 is provided as a flexible plate in the first embodiment of the invention and divides the interior of the bending portion 3 into two chambers 31 and 32. This design allows for the bending section to be used on very thin insertion tubes without eyelets being required.

The bending portion can be adjusted by pulling on the angulation wires. The angulation wires are attached to the insertion tube in four locations. Pulling on one of the wires at the 12 o’clock position causes the bending section to curl up, while pulling on the other three wires cause it to bend to the right and left.

4. Antireflux Valve

The antireflux valve of an insertion tube endoscope prevents the insertion tube from being displaced during use. This is especially important for the pharyngeal endoscope, as this could result in a perforation of the pharynx or a severe submucosal hemorrhage.

This is achieved by a mandrel and liner being inserted into the insertion tube’s shaft. The liner may have one, two, or more lateral slots and is then bonded to an inner surface of the shaft.

In another embodiment, a first deflection wire is inserted in a gap between the shaft and the unbonded portion(s) of the liner. The deflection wire has a diameter that changes in response to the amount of force applied.

The diameter changing points of the first deflection wire are set such that they do not contact each other in a state where the insertion tube is straight and further in any bending state of the insertion tube. This is done in order to reduce plastic distortion.

Moreover, the linear members 52 of the insertion tube are made of a material having superelasticity. The elasticity of the linear members is such that plastic distortion disappears on removal of an external force and returns to an original shape.

These properties make the insertion tube more flexible, resiliency, and followable, which increases the insertion and operation performance of an insertion tube endoscope.

To avoid the insertion tube being displaced during use, it is best to hold the instrument handle at a distance of about 25 to 30 centimeters before inserting the endoscope into the pharynx. Excessive force will lead to a perforation of the pharynx and a severe submucosal bloodshed, so it is vital that the operator only pushes on the insertion tube at a safe, low-resistance level.

5. Accessory Channel

The accessory channel is the part of an insertion tube endoscope responsible for supplying air and suction to the instrument inside it. Ideally, the channel should be located outside of the instrument, so that the flow of air does not insufflate the endoscope.

Alternatively, the channel can be located within the instrument. This will reduce the effectiveness of the suction. In addition, it may cause damage to the tubular member, which can result in the need for a replacement.

In some insertion tube endoscopes, the channel is flexible and can be adjusted to any desired position. This allows the user to change the position of the accessory channel without having to remove the endoscope from a patient.

One way to achieve flexibility in the insertion tube is to use a material with a high degree of elasticity. Materials such as neoprene and rubber-like polyurethanes are used for this purpose.

Another way to make a flexible insertion tube is to use thermoplastic resins. These types of resins are very durable and offer a high degree of flexibility.

Moreover, these resins are relatively soft and have a higher resistance to chemicals than hardened resins. These properties can improve the durability of the insertion tube and the endoscope.

In addition, these materials can provide a high level of lubricity to the insertion tube, which is important for maintaining a smooth surface during use. This can also help in maintaining a good seal between the insertion tube and the patient’s skin.

The bending section of the insertion tube is controlled by four angulation wires that run along the length of the insertion tube and attach to the tip of the bending section at four different positions. Pulling on one of these wires will cause the bending section to curl up. The other two wires can deflect down or to the left, respectively.